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Saturday, 15 June 2024 09:11

Linux base

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/ - System root
/Bin - contains essential binary files, system programs (executable files - similar to Windows .exe files)
/Lib - contains libraries of programs related to the kernel (similar to windows .dll, or .sys)
/Lib64 - contains a library of programs related to the kernel architecture x86_64
/Etc - contains global configuration files, programs
/Home - contains users' home directories (something like My Documents)
/Mnt - mounted disk space - file systems (in some distributions, eg. Ubuntu disks are installed in the directory /media)
/Media - space mounting (connecting) removable media like pen drive, floppy disk, memory card, or cd-rom drives
/Lost + found - files recovered during the test drive
/Dev - contains the files responsible for the operation of devices such as. Rom. Generally, the files in this directory are responsible for the communication system - a computer device.
/Boot - contains the files responsible for booting (starting) the system and kernel
/Sbin - contains the executable commands, available only for the administrator (root)
/Tmp - contains the temporary files (including those recording on the disc when browsing the Internet)
/Usr - contains all program files (icons from libraries)
/Usr/bin - contains the binary files of various programs
/Usr/sbin - contains binary files of various programs designed to root
/Usr/lib - contains libraries of various programs
/Usr/lib64 - contains a library of different programs for architecture x86_64
/Usr/share - contains various program files, for example. Bitmaps, icons, themes, etc.
/Var - "holds" variable programs (eg. The lock to start the second copy of the program)


Root is the user who can control everything in the system (administrator). With this account, you can perform administrative tasks on your system. To have root privileges to be in a console type
su -

RPM package is the installation package of the program. It reminds Install Shield or .msi file with Windows but is much "smarter". As you know, different programs can use the same libraries, and their repeated loading into memory is unnecessary. With RPM package contains only the program, but it will not install if no other programs or libraries are required.

The repository is a collection of software that is compatible with each other (does not cause problems). Installing such software contained in the repository is a tool YUM. In Fedora stands out basic 2 repositories:

    Fedora - basic system packages included on the DVD and in an online repository with additional packages
Livna - pack patented and unopened (drivers, multimedia codecs), unofficial, however, strongly supported

Installing the software on a Fedora system can be done in many ways. For individual packages rpm best to use just double click on the installation file. The system will check whether it has all the dependencies and in their absence, download and install it from the Internet with the software. The second option is to use yum. This is a great program console that management software is irreplaceable. To use yum, you must have root privileges. What was mentioned earlier.
yum install program_name

installs and its dependencies
yum remove program_name

removes the program and its dependencies
yum search słowa_kluczowe

the program searches for matching keywords
yum grouplist

displays the software group (eg, multimedia, desktop environments, tools, server)
yum groupinstall

installs software group

Of course, YUM is not just a console. Software management is in
Menu Applications → Add / Remove Software

It is very intuitive and needs no description. By default, the system we have a repository containing thousands of software packages. However, for the patent system does not include certain codecs, and drivers for graphics cards nvidia or ati (just like in Windows). Therefore, at this stage Install a system repository Livna. In the console from the root, type:

System 32 bit
su - ">rpm -Uhv

System 64 bit
su - ">rpm -Uhv

Mounting a partition is a partition assignment to a specific directory. Now check the distribution and numbers of disk partitions buy baclofen . (From the root)
fdisk -l

We create a directory where we will mount partitions.
mkdir / mnt / partition_name

We add to the fstab line about our partitions. (X is the disk number, Y is the number of partitions according to the above command).
mcedit / etc / fstab

The default level is the level of the fifth start (init 5). Run level is a set of services with which the computer starts up.

NetworkManager - a tool for the automatic management of wireless networks
NetworkManagerDispatcher - the development of the above services
acpid - listens and sends commands to the kernel ACPI (not off!)
anacron - runs scheduled tasks (not off!)
apmd - one of the demons to the battery management
atd - runs scheduled tasks (not off!)
autofs - automatic mounting / unmounting drives (I recommend to leave, although it is not necessary)
bluetooth - demon intermediary in communication bluetooth PC →
capi - demon associated with ISDN cards
cpuspeed - a program for a smooth change of frequency mobile processors
crond - launches scheduled tasks (not off!)
cups - service printing system
dund - service to connect to the network via Bluetooth

firstboot - a service which starts configuration when you first start your computer  sure to turn off
gpm - a service that adds mouse support in console nice thing
haldaemon - service management devices (not off!)
hidd - a service that adds support for Bluetooth devices as mouses, remote controls, keyboards, etc.
hplip - service managing printers, scanners, Hewlett-Packard
httpd - Apache daemon, or Web server
ip6tables - firewall for IPv6 networks
iptables - firewall (not off!)
irda - service communication via IrDA (infrared port)
irqbalance - an important system service, do not turn off!
isdn - ISDN service
kudzu - Automatic configuration of new devices at startup (for example, totally useless. with a laptop)
lirc - controls infrared (anyone use it?)
lm_sensors - sensors of temperature, voltage, etc. Requires setup!
mcstrans - demon managing SELinux (not off!)
mdmonitor - monitoring RAID drives
mdmpd - management and monitoring RAID devices
messagebus - information about system events (do not turn off!)
mysqld - the demon MySQL database
netfs - service network drives
netplugd - support for non-static network interfaces
network - activates the service network (not off!)
pcscd - card management to identify the user or something like that off
restorecond - support for SELinux contexts (not off!)
sendmail - mail server placement
smb - access to network resources windows
sshd - server remote access to the computer SSH
syslog - manages and creates system logs (not off!)
wine - captures application support windows (.exe) by double-clicking